Now, a fresh look at a year-old clay tablet suggests that Babylonian mathematicians not only developed the first trig table, beating the Greeks to the punch by more than years, but that they also figured out an entirely new way to look at the subject. However, other experts on the clay tablet, known as Plimpton P , say the new work is speculative at best. Consisting of four columns and 15 rows of numbers inscribed in cuneiform, the famous P tablet was discovered in the early s in what is now southern Iraq by archaeologist, antiquities dealer, and diplomat Edgar Banks, the inspiration for the fictional character Indiana Jones. Now stored at Columbia University, the tablet first garnered attention in the s, when historians recognized that its cuneiform inscriptions contain a series of numbers echoing the Pythagorean theorem, which explains the relationship of the lengths of the sides of a right triangle. The square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the square of the other two sides. But why ancient scribes generated and sorted these numbers in the first place has been debated for decades. The familiar sines, cosines, and angles used by Greek astronomers and modern-day high schoolers were completely missing.
Inside : The math of online dating
Consider a permutation of size 4: Today I am excited by ordered subset of size 3 inside this permutation. For example, I can drop the last number and look at The ordering in is the same as in , or, as a mathematician would say, is order-isomorphic to
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Introduction Voting and Elections: Introduction Feature Column Archive 1. Introduction Everyone is familiar with the power of mathematics to solve problems in physics. Though Galileo is recognized more as a physicist than a mathematician, he was a professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa and the University of Padua Isaac Newton makes any short list of both the greatest physicists and mathematicians of all time. Other mathematicians who made significant contributions to mathematics and physics include Leonard Euler , Laplace , and Gauss Mathematics has also had an important role to play in chemistry, geology and biology but what about mathematics and political science?
Has mathematics had significant applications in political science? I believe so and in my discussion here I will deal with mathematical approaches to voting and elections. Contributions of mathematics to voting began earlier than many people realize. During the period of the French Revolution, two fascinating people with talent in mathematics, the Marquis de Condorcet and Jean de Charles Borda , raised important ideas related to voting systems. Others who made contributions to mathematical ideas that involve elections include Charles Dodgson , Duncan Black , Kenneth Arrow, and John Kemeny , and Steven Brams.
Dodgson was a professional mathematician at Oxford, in addition to being the author of Alice in Wonderland. Duncan Black was an economist who revived interest in using mathematical tools to study voting systems.
Top mathematician says he solved the ‘single most important open problem’ in math after years
What use are imaginary numbers in the real world? Do they have purpose or is it just mathematicians having some fun? Bob Jones , Aberdeen Scotland All numbers are imaginary even “zero” was contentious once. Introducing the square root s of minus one is convenient because i all n-degree polynomials with real coefficients then have n roots, making algebra “complete”; ii it saves using matrix representations for objects that square to -1 such objects representing an important part of the structure of linear equations which appear in quantum mechanics, heat diffusion, optics, etc.
The hottest contenders for numbers without purpose are probably the p-adic numbers an extension of the rationals , and perhaps the expiry dates on army ration packs. Michael Hall, Canberra Australia Don’t forget that maths is an invention, if you like the rules of a game by which we play.
Mathematics can still offer answers.
The agency is particularly interesting because it maintains a stable of mathematicians to solve any problems that come up in the course of sleuthing. In fact, the whole point of the NSA originally was mathematical cryptography following the re-organization of the cryptanalysis divisions of the army and navy after World War Two. While the exact number of mathematicians the NSA employs is classified, the agency acknowledges that they’re the nation’s leading employer of mathematicians.
From an NSA job listing explaining the demands of the position: As an NSA Mathematician, you may find yourself designing and analyzing complex algorithms, or expressing difficult cryptographic problems in mathematical terms, and then applying both your art and science to find a solution The agency is a heavy recruiter from math departments around the country, so we do have some details from applicants and employees about hwo the process goes. The NSA has maintained a long relationship with the math community, and a article in Math Horizons by NSA mathematician Michelle Wagner laid out the on-the-record details of the laborious application process: Applicants should submit their application six to nine months in advance of their potential start date.
Mathematician hacks dating site to find true love
As more and more relationships begin online, dating and hookup apps should discourage discrimination by offering users categories other than race and ethnicity to describe themselves, posting inclusive community messages, and writing algorithms that don’t discriminate, the authors said. Taft, a research coordinator at Cornell Tech, and Solon Barocas and Karen Levy, assistant professors of information science.
Although partner preferences are extremely personal, the authors argue that culture shapes our preferences, and dating apps influence our decisions. Fifteen percent of Americans report using dating sites, and some research estimates that a third of marriages – and 60 percent of same-sex relationships – started online. Tinder and Grindr have tens of millions of users, and Tinder says it has facilitated 20 billion connections since its launch.
Engineers will get EE, Mechanical, and Chemical.
Mathematician and Philosopher c. Considered a mathematician, but foremost a philosopher, Pythagoras was a very important figure in mathematics, astronomy, musical theory, and in the world’s history. However, little in the way of reliable record is known about his life and accomplishments. The accounts of Pythagoras inventing the musical scale, performing miracles, and announcing prophecies are probably only legend, and appear to have little historical foundation.
Scholars generally agree only upon the main events in his life, and usually combine together discoveries by Pythagoras with those by his band of loyal followers. Pythagoras established in what is now the southeastern coast of Italy a philosophical, political, and religious society whose members believed that the world could be explained using mathematics as based upon whole numbers and their ratios.
Their motto was “All is number. Many Pythagorean beliefs such as secrecy, vegetarianism, periods of food abstinence and silence, refusal to eat beans, refusal to wear animal skins, celibacy, self-examination, immortality, and reincarnation were directed as “rules of life. The beliefs of the society were that reality is mathematical; philosophy is used for spiritual purification; the soul is divine; and certain symbols possess mystical significance.
Both men and women were permitted to become members. In fact, several female Pythagoreans became noted philosophers.
Redesign dating apps to lessen racial bias, study recommends
Now a group of former Harvard math majors are crunching the data to reveal the secret tips of the online dater, displaying them in – naturally – graph form. Men, for example, should show off their six pack if they have one – but only if they’re young. Meanwhile women should always flirt with the camera – but men should look aloof. Plot your love life:
You can find people of all ages, orientations, and backgrounds on this general dating platform.
The book contains some fifteen definitions and ninety-five statements, of which there are about two dozen statements that serve as algebraic rules or formulas. There are three primary types of conic sections: The conic sections are reputed to have been discovered by Menaechmus  c. Using this information it was now possible to find a solution to the problem of the duplication of the cube by solving for the points at which two parabolas intersect, a solution equivalent to solving a cubic equation.
Dionysodorus solved the cubic by means of the intersection of a rectangular hyperbola and a parabola. This was related to a problem in Archimedes ‘ On the Sphere and Cylinder.
His commentary on the algorithms for computing the volumes of bodies exemplifies the kind of mathematical work… All that is known about the life of Liu Hui is that he lived in the northern Wei kingdom see Three Kingdoms during the 3rd century ce. These proofs are the earliest-known Chinese proofs in the contemporary sense. However, in contrast to authors of ancient Greek mathematical texts, Liu did not set out to prove theorems so much as to establish the correctness of algorithms.
Don and Charlie’s father, Alan Eppes, provides emotional support for the pair, while Professor Larry Fleinhardt and doctoral student Amita Ramanujan provide mathematical support and insights to Charlie.
The simple but efficient ancient Chinese numbering system, which dates back to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, used small bamboo rods arranged to represent the numbers 1 to 9, which were then places in columns representing units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. It was therefore a decimal place value system, very similar to the one we use today – indeed it was the first such number system, adopted by the Chinese over a thousand years before it was adopted in the West – and it made even quite complex calculations very quick and easy.
Written numbers, however, employed the slightly less efficient system of using a different symbol for tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. This was largely because there was no concept or symbol of zero, and it had the effect of limiting the usefulness of the written number in Chinese. Lo Shu magic square, with its traditional graphical representation There was a pervasive fascination with numbers and mathematical patterns in ancient China, and different numbers were believed to have cosmic significance.
In particular, magic squares – squares of numbers where each row, column and diagonal added up to the same total – were regarded as having great spiritual and religious significance. It was particularly important as a guide to how to solve equations – the deduction of an unknown number from other known information – using a sophisticated matrix-based method which did not appear in the West until Carl Friedrich Gauss re-discovered it at the beginning of the 19th Century and which is now known as Gaussian elimination.
They also started to pursue more abstract mathematical problems although usually couched in rather artificial practical terms , including what has become known as the Chinese Remainder Theorem. This uses the remainders after dividing an unknown number by a succession of smaller numbers, such as 3, 5 and 7, in order to calculate the smallest value of the unknown number.
A technique for solving such problems, initially posed by Sun Tzu in the 3rd Century CE and considered one of the jewels of mathematics, was being used to measure planetary movements by Chinese astronomers in the 6th Century AD, and even today it has practical uses, such as in Internet cryptography. By the 13th Century, the Golden Age of Chinese mathematics, there were over 30 prestigious mathematics schools scattered across China.
Perhaps the most brilliant Chinese mathematician of this time was Qin Jiushao, a rather violent and corrupt imperial administrator and warrior, who explored solutions to quadratic and even cubic equations using a method of repeated approximations very similar to that later devised in the West by Sir Isaac Newton in the 17th Century. Qin even extended his technique to solve albeit approximately equations involving numbers up to the power of ten, extraordinarily complex mathematics for its time.
The Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War
The Cathedral stands on the exact site of a roman temple built on a little hill above the muddy ground. The first version of the church was starting to be built during by proposal of Bishop Werner von Habsburg, but fire destroyed most of the original Romanesque building. By the time that cathedral was being renovated at the end of the 12th century, this time with red stones carried from the nearby mountains of Vosges , the gothic architectural style has reached Alsace and the future cathedral was starting to develop all characteristics of gothic aesthetics.
The project of the first cathedral in Alsace was handed to craftsman and stonemasons who had already worked on the also famous gothic cathedral in Chartres.
The Pythagorean philosophy was dominated by the ideal that numbers were not only symbols of reality, but also were the final substance of real things, known as “number mysticism.
The Mahabharat, orginally written by Sage Ved Vyas in Sanskrut, has been translated and adapted into numerous languages and has been set to a variety of interpretations. Dating back to “remote antiquity”, it is still a living force in the life of the Indian masses. Incidently, the dating of the Mahabharat War has been a matter of challenge and controversy for a century or two. European scholars have maintained that the events described in the ancient Sanskrut texts are imaginary and subsequently, the Mahabharat derived to be a fictitiou tale of a war fought between two rivalries.
Starting from the so- called Aryan invasion into Bharat, the current Bharatiya chronology starts from the compilation of the Rigved in B. In the meantime, the Brahmanas, Samhi- tas, Puranas, etc. Where does the Ramayan and Mahabharat fit in? Some say that the Ramayan follows Mahabharat and some opine otherwise. In all this anarchy of Indian histography, the date of the Mahabharat the mythical story!
Saunskrut epics were academically attacked occasion- ally – an attempt to disprove the authencity of the annals noted therein.